Bankruptcy Attorney

accurate binary option software price sitemap
60 second binary option trading strategy how i can make 1000 a day sitemap
alpari free binary option trading simulator sitemap
1 minute getting started with binary options sitemap
24 30 sec binary options strategy scam sitemap
10 minute binary option trading system buddy v3 sitemap
1 best binary options broker in australia sitemap
best 60 second binary options indicator robot review sitemap
are binary option profits taxable live sitemap
b o s s binary options signals skype sitemap
australian binary options platforms bitcoin sitemap
archerbinary options signals sitemap
an investors guide to understanding and mastering options trading sitemap
bear and bull markets their impact on binary option investments sitemap
2 minute binary option free bot strategy sitemap
15 minute binary options listed sitemap
60 sec binary option strategy regulation sitemap
60 second binary options australia sitemap
apexinvesting trade binary options successfully sitemap
2 minute one two trade binary option strategy sitemap
aim for the cash binary options by lloydmorse7221 sitemap
alpari co uk binary options zero movie sitemap
australian binary option hedging bot sitemap
australian non regulated binary options brokers sitemap
100 win the best binary options trading system sitemap
24 bulls binary options system disk sitemap
60 second binary options systems pimp sitemap
60 sec binary option strategies trading in usa sitemap
10 interactive broker binary option sitemap
advantages of binary options trading xposed autotrader sitemap
5 point binary option system 81 trading sitemap
basics of binary options buddy torrent sitemap
basics of binary option system 2015 sitemap
a guide to what are one touch binary options sitemap
95 binary option payout jobs sitemap
60s binary option system websites at headstats sitemap
4xp legit binary options trading demo sitemap
24option binary broker review sitemap
assassin 8 formula for binary options sitemap
24 binary options business sitemap
are binary options a scam michael looks into this claim sitemap
are binary option regulated by the fsa in malaysia sitemap
arbitrage in trading binary option indonesia sitemap
60 second binary options with metatrader uk sitemap
4xp can us citizens trade binary options demo sitemap
60 second binary options scalping is it legit sitemap
best binary option broker in india bonuses sitemap
60 second binary option systems 81 sitemap
5 minute binary options coach strategy sitemap
95 binary options payout xo sitemap
australian binary option review pdf sitemap
1 hour binary options 20 minimum deposit sitemap
24 binary option trading on mt4 sitemap
anyoptiontm the leading binary options trading platform offers safe sitemap
777binary binary options traders forum sitemap
5 dollar binary option system 2 0 sitemap
10 minute best forex binary options trading system sitemap
alpari co uk how to hedge binary options sitemap
888 forex binary options scalping sitemap
auto binary signals 1 binary options software is auto signals a sitemap
3 reasons why financial analyst prefers binary option trading to forex sitemap
30 second binary options brokers daily strategy sitemap
300 second binary option broker in uk sitemap
arabic binary option broker sitemap
australian based binary options brokers queen software sitemap
24 binary options trading in nigeria review sitemap
888 fully automated binary options software sitemap
7 figure traveler software review binary options trading that works sitemap
5 minute which binary options broker is best system sitemap
australian binary option trading system 009 sitemap
5 minute binary options in sa sitemap
best 60 second binary options indicators live signals sitemap
austriaegyptorg binary options trading blog broker reviews trade strategies sitemap
alpari uk fxcm binary option sitemap
best binary option australia robots that work sitemap
60 second binary option brokers strategies 8 sitemap

The importance of reciprocity in ultrasocial societies

In reading the book The Happiness Hypothesis by Jonathan Heidt I came across an important element that makes ultrasocial societies work – reciprocity.

Heidt defines ultrasociality as: living in large cooperative societies in which hundreds of thousand of individuals reap the benefits of an extensive division of labor. Only four instances of ultrasociality are in existence – among hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), termites, naked mole rats, and humans. In all species but humans the force that makes that possible is the genetics of kin altruism. In an ants nest or a bee nest, everybody is brother and sister, and since you have as much genes in common with your siblings as you have with your children, the evolutionary drive to leave surviving copies of your genes makes those ultrasocial communities work – shared genes equals shared interest.

In societies that are not structured like bee or ant colonies, the shared set of genes that you have with others drops off rather dramatically – while you share 50% of the genes with your children and siblings, you only share 1/8 the genes with your cousins, and 1/32 with second cousins. In a strictly Darwinian calculation, you would only spend as much energy to save 4 of your cousins as you would for 1 child or brother. That is why kin altruism explains only how groups of a few dozen, or perhaps a hundred, animals can work together. The rest would be competitors in the Darwinian sense.

So what happened to human societies? How did we get fictitious families, like the Mafia, where there is no real kinship, even though they talk about the Godfather and being part of the “family”, to work as ultrasocial societies? It’s the old fashioned “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” phenomenon – which is in fact a mindless and automatic reciprocity reflex. if someone receives a favor, that person will be driven to repay that favor – not because it the proper thing to do – but because it is a built-in ethological reflex. It’s tit-for-tat, hardwired in our brains, that opens the possibility of forming cooperative relationships with strangers. Now mind you that tit-for-tat can only explain the existence of social groups up to a few hundreds. What allows larger social groups is its co-existence with vengeance, gratitude and gossip as tools that reduce the payoff to cheaters by the cost of making enemies.

Those very primitive hardwired human behaviors confirm a lot about what makes online communities work as well – the importance of reputation, the importance of self-organized posses to police communities, the importance of helping one another as a currency, and the failure of communities where reciprocity is not an integral component of the community.

0saves
If you enjoyed this post, please consider leaving a comment or subscribing to the RSS feed to have future articles delivered to your feed reader.

You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.



AddThis Social Bookmark Button